Endovascular Neurosurgery

Endovascular Neurosurgery Services

As the only endovascular neurosurgeon in the region, Dr. Maria Toledo ensures that patients have access to the latest techniques used to diagnose and treat diseases and conditions, such as brain aneurisms, ischemic strokes, cerebral and spinal vascular lesions, and arteriovenous malformations and fistulas.

An endovascular neurosurgeon is a surgeon who is specially trained to perform minimally-invasive procedures that combine the use of imaging technology, catheters and various clotting agents to treat diseases of the blood vessels of the brain and spine. Over the last several years, catheter techniques have become the treatment of choice for certain aneurysms because they involve less risk and faster recovery than open brain surgery.

Dr. Toledo specializes in endovascular, cerebrovascular and skull base neurosurgery. She has special medical interests in treating cerebral and spinal vascular lesions, either endovascularly or through a craniotomy. Vascular lesions include brain aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, arteriovenous fistulas, and ischemic strokes. She also has significant experience treating pituitary tumors, hemifacial spasm, trigeminal neuralgia, meningiomas and other brain tumors. Dr. Toledo has extensive experience in performing cerebral diagnostic angiograms to diagnose and plan treatment for suspected vascular lesions.

Endovascular neurosurgical procedures include:

  • Thrombolytic therapy. This procedure uses “clot-busting” medication to dissolve a clot in a blood vessel in the brain or elsewhere in the body.
  • Endovascular coiling. A surgeon inserts a very thin metal wire that forms a coil inside a brain aneurysm to block blood flow. A brain aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of an artery in the brain, resulting in an abnormal widening or ballooning. Because the artery wall has a weakened spot, the aneurysm is at risk for bursting if blood flow isn’t blocked. Aneurysm can be treated by coiling or clipping it closed.
  • Minimally invasive spine surgery. This procedure is used to treat spinal disorders, such as fractures, tumors, compressed nerves, and other conditions that put pressure on the spinal cord.
  • Cerebral angiography. This is a radiology procedure that looks at how blood is flowing in the brain.
  • Carotid artery angioplasty/stenting. This procedure uses a small balloon and/or a tiny metal scaffold called a stent to open a narrowed carotid artery. The carotid arteries supply blood to the brain.


Pediatric Neurosurgery
Stroke Treatment
Biplane Imaging
Endovascular Neurosurgery
Gamma Knife Surgery

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